wind energy, solar energy, biogas

Sustainable Development Goals

secap, zero waste, water




net zero
COP21 Paris

What is Happening at Climate Change Conference?

COP stands for "Conference of the Parties" and can be translated into Turkish as "Conference of the Parties". The COP is one of the main bodies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UNFCCC is an international agreement adopted in 1992 to combat climate change at the global level. By following the climate conference for you, we catch up with the agenda and point out what lies ahead.

Let's get to the article... COP meetings bring together government representatives from around the world to discuss and determine climate change policies, commitments, and strategies. These meetings aim to encourage cooperation between countries to tackle climate change and to take effective measures globally. The annual COP meetings bring together representatives of participating countries and contribute to the process of determining global climate change policies. The decisions taken at these meetings can be influential in shaping global climate policies and ensuring the coordination of efforts to combat climate change among countries.

For example, the Paris Agreement was adopted at the COP21 meeting 2015. This agreement aims to establish a framework among countries to limit global warming and combat climate change. COP meetings are one of the platforms where such important agreements are negotiated and adopted. Today, climate change poses a serious threat worldwide. To combat this threat and take effective actions, cooperation at the national and international levels has become mandatory. In this context, many regulations and decisions are made through various international organizations. The Conference of the Parties ("COP"), organized by the United Nations (UN), which is held in a different country every year, aims to establish global policies, determine and evaluate commitments, develop action plans, and exchange ideas on these issues. In addition to the conference held in Egypt last year, we, as the Green Forest team, will participate in COP28, which will be held in Dubai between November 30 - December 12, 2023. COP28 is a critically important platform in the fight against climate change, where states participate to promote international cooperation and discuss global action plans.

Ahead of COP28, PreCOP28 was held on October 31, 2023, in Abu Dhabi with the participation of ministers from more than 70 countries and over 100 delegation members. Among the agenda items of the meeting are issues such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, climate change adaptation and global targets, establishing a fund to compensate for losses and damages, and increasing climate finance.

COP28 will host the Global Stocktake, which will assess efforts to achieve the goal of limiting global warming to 1.5°C under the Paris Agreement. It was also announced that PreCOP28 will implement an action plan, shaped by input from government representatives, companies, civil society organizations, youth, and other stakeholders. This action plan is based on four main pillars: accelerating green transformation, enhancing climate finance mechanisms, focusing on adaptation efforts, and inclusiveness. This plan, shaped by contributions from various sectors, aims to provide a comprehensive approach to the strategic objectives of COP28.

In his opening speech at PreCOP28, COP28 President Ahmed Al Jaber said: "There is too much that divides our world. Now, more than ever, we need to unite on climate, to send a message of hope, solidarity, stability, and prosperity. We need to show that the international community can give a clear signal that will make the 1.5 degree target achievable", emphasizing the need to unite on climate action globally.

At PreCOP28, the COP28 Presidency, in collaboration with GRA - Global Renewable Alliance and IRENA - International Renewable Energy Agency, published the report "Tripling Renewable Energy and Doubling Energy Efficiency by 2030: Important Steps Towards 1.5°C" report was published. According to the report, renewable energy generation capacity should be tripled to reach the 1.5 degrees Celsius target worldwide by 2030. To reach this target, more than 11,000 GW of capacity is needed and 90 percent of the total energy capacity should come from sustainable sources such as solar and wind energy. The action plan for the COP28 summit calls for tripling renewable energy capacity to 11,000 GW and increasing hydrogen production to 18 million tons per year. In addition, phasing down the use of fossil fuels and phasing out fossil fuel subsidies will also be among the important topics. The report emphasizes the importance of energy efficiency and the need to double efforts in this area by 2030. To achieve this goal, it is recommended to use more efficient technologies and to promote extensive electrification. It should also be noted that before COP28, the UNFCC - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat published the 2023 Synthesis Report, which analyzes the national contribution declarations submitted by countries to combat climate change. According to the report, although there is an increase in some countries' efforts to combat climate change, it is emphasized that these efforts are insufficient to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees by the end of the century. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said in a statement on the report: "The world is failing to contain the climate crisis. As the report shows, efforts to tackle climate change ground to a halt last year. According to national plans, global greenhouse gas emissions are projected to increase by 9 percent by 2030 compared to 2010 levels" and stated that "step-by-step" progress in combating the climate crisis would not be enough. In this direction, the policies to combat the climate crisis and the solution methods on how to implement these policies are expected to be examined at COP28. The COP28 Presidency has a commitment to work with government and industry to deliver an energy package that focuses on the energy transition and will be fast-tracked. As such, we expect COP28 to hold discussions to help heavy-emitting sectors transition to these targets through renewable energy generation, energy efficiency, electrification, and advanced technologies. In addition, the COP28 Presidency is expected to launch the "Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Commitment". It is also expected to elaborate on innovative strategies to accelerate the transition to renewable energy sources, increase energy efficiency, and achieve energy efficiency on a global scale. The Energy Transition Changemakers initiative, which the COP28 Presidency will launch for the first time this year, aims to support innovative and scalable decarbonization projects around the world and encourage collaboration within the private sector. The initiative aims to recognize projects that play a leading role in the energy transition and bring stakeholders together. The projects identified by the initiative are planned to be presented at COP28 on December 5, 2023. In this way, it aims to create a global platform for energy transition, bringing together participants from various sectors, and raising awareness and opportunities for global cooperation. In addition, one of the four focus areas of WBCSD - World Business Council for Sustainable Development at COP28 will be the transformation of the energy and industrial sector. Other focus areas are corporate carbon performance and accountability, food and agriculture transformation, and pro-nature actions for climate action. COP28 has an important potential to make new commitments, increase financing, and promote transformation to achieve the climate targets previously set. In addition, COP28 plays a key role in determining more comprehensive and effective approaches against the negative impacts of climate change globally and taking action in the right way by providing a common resistance.

Adaptation to climate change is half of the climate equation. For this reason, cities and city peripheries are very important in the fight against climate change. It is important to increase resilience to climate change, adapt, and reduce vulnerabilities. We must believe in nature-based solutions with ancient knowledge. Development, climate change, and biodiversity matter for our right to live in a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable environment. We will follow the decisions taken at COP28 and the sessions on global action plans to combat climate change and share our general evaluations after COP28 with you as soon as possible. You can contact us about the European Green Deal, carbon regulation mechanism at the border, emission trading systems, and green transformation in companies.

Ahead of COP29 Climate Summit in Azerbaijan

We have been following climate summits for many years. We have also published the translation of the Paris Agreement. Moreover, we provide information and experiences to companies about what they should do in this regard.

1. Global Stocktake (COP28 - December 2023):

The Global Stocktake at COP28 assessed the progress made in the fight against climate change. Leaders emphasized that climate change is a global problem and that solutions must be based on the principles of integrity and inclusiveness. The Global Stocktake aimed to measure countries' efforts to curb global warming.

2. Loss and Damage Fund (COP27 and COP28):

Building on the consensus adopted at COP27, COP28 agreed to establish the Loss and Damage Fund. The Fund went down in history as a financial instrument that aims to compensate for damages caused by climate change. It was agreed that the fund would be at least 100 billion dollars annually by 2030 and that the World Bank would be the interim host. Developed countries will make voluntary contributions while developing countries will have direct access to the fund.

3. Moving Away from Fossil Fuels (COP28):

At COP28, a draft agreement calling for a transition away from fossil fuels was approved. However, "divestment" was used instead of "phase-out". The text emphasized accelerating actions to move away from fossil fuels fairly, orderly, and equitably and reach net zero by 2050. However, some countries reacted to the term, citing shortcomings.

4. Renewable Energy Targets:

At COP28, new commitments were renewed for an energy system transition that will make it possible to meet the goal of keeping global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The Accelerating Global Decarbonization initiative was launched, which includes tripling global renewable energy capacity by 2030 and doubling progress in energy efficiency. However, some key countries have not signed up to this commitment.

5. Tackling Climate Change and Climate Finance:

One of the declarations signed at COP28 is a declaration on cooperation on global climate, biodiversity and land restoration. In addition, efforts were made to regulate global carbon markets and to price emissions by calling for "Let the polluter pay!". Climate finance was emphasized, with significant support for the Green Climate Fund, the Least Developed Countries Fund, the Special Climate Change Fund, and the Adaptation Fund. The World Bank and donors took important steps to increase financing with commitments to invest in climate-related projects.

6. Climate Change and Health

The "Guiding Principles on Financing Climate and Health Solutions" endorsed at COP28 were supported by more than 40 funding partners and civil society organizations. This highlights increased collaboration among funders and accelerated efforts to provide sustainable support to climate and health challenges.

The Declaration welcomed commitments from stakeholders ranging from governments to development banks, multilateral institutions, and charities to expand their investments in climate and health solutions. These organizations agreed to allocate $1 billion in a joint commitment to address the growing health needs of the climate crisis.

COP28 President Dr. Sultan Al Jaber said that climate change is a serious threat affecting everyone and that governments are beginning to include health as a core element of climate action. This declaration sends a strong message for increased joint efforts to reduce emissions and support health systems in all countries.

Towards results...

Turkey's responsibilities arising from the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol to which it is a party, as well as the steps it has taken in the context of its relations with the European Union, have been addressed. These steps include the 2050 target, the 2030 plan, the National Contribution Declaration, and the National

Emissions Trading System. In addition, the sectors and occupational groups that may be affected on the path to decarbonization are also mentioned and it becomes important to manage this transformation.

Turkey's green transformation approach centered on economy and energy, initiated out of necessity and social justice should be ensured and the benefits and damages of transformation should be distributed fairly. In this context, the 'polluter pays principle' recommended by the OECD and enshrined in environmental law should be implemented.

After that, at the UNCFF COP29 to be held in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, at the end of 2024 (11-22 November 2024), studies should be carried out within the framework of adaptation to climate change in Central Asia as an issue other than oil.

Orange dome vending machine: Feel the Peel

Plastic waste has become an intractable problem that requires urgent solutions. So much so that WWF has launched a 450-year live broadcast showing the process of a plastic bottle dissolving in nature to draw attention to this issue. As awareness of this issue has increased around the world, plastic packaging materials are slowly being replaced by more environmentally friendly solutions. 

We have already reported that supermarkets in Thailand and Vietnam have started using banana leaves instead of plastic packaging in the vegetable and fruit sections. On the other hand, Scientist Sandra Pascoe made waves with the natural plastic obtained from cactus juice. MakeGrowLab, on the other hand, proposed a natural plastic called SCOBY made from vegetables against the plastic waste problem. 

Now, as with coffee cups made from coffee waste, there is a technology that obtains packaging from waste, "Feel the Peel".

Orange dome vending machine: Feel the Peel

Orange juice is one of the healthiest things we can buy from a vending machine. Moreover, in many of these machines, it is possible to see how the oranges are squeezed in real-time. Feel the Peel is one of these vending machines. 

It is a prototype machine that uses orange peels to create bioplastic and serves the juice of the squeezed oranges in glasses made from this bioplastic. The machine is a project prepared for Eni by Carlo Ratti Associati, an Italy-based international design and innovation studio known for its crazy projects such as Scribit, a robot that prints on the wall, and a human-powered gym-ship. 

The 2.74 m high machine can store 1,500 oranges on its dome-shaped roof. Since the oranges can be seen from the outside, this is a very sympathetic dome. It also collects the peels of the oranges it squeezes in a smaller tank at the bottom. He dries the peels, grinds them, and mixes them with polylactic acid to create a bioplastic. It then heats and melts this mixture and sends it as filament to a built-in 3D printer. 

The printer then prints recyclable orange juice glasses. Carlo Ratti Associati predicts that they will continue to develop this technology and in the future, they may even be able to produce clothes from orange peels.

Shoes Made from Chewed Chewing Gum

A Dutch company is fighting environmental pollution in Amsterdam by using chewing gum thrown on the streets a very interesting method.

Approximately 1.5 million kilograms of chewing gum pollute the streets in the Netherlands every year and it costs millions of dollars to clean them up.

Gum-tec, a brand affiliated with the company Gumpdrop, has launched Gumshoe (Gum Shoe) shoes in a very creative effort to collect and transform waste gum, which is Amsterdam's biggest problem after cigarette butts in terms of environmental pollution, into a useful result.

The sole of this shoe, called Gumshoe, is made of recyclable compounds produced by Gumdrop, of which 20% is gum.

Anna Bullus, designer and managing director of Gumdrop, said: "We discovered that chewing gum is made of synthetic rubber, and we used this property of gum to create a new kind of rubber."

Within the scope of the project, the recycled chewing gum used in the production of shoes is collected from the streets of Amsterdam. Approximately 1 kg of gum is used for every four pairs of shoes produced.

Gumshoe, the world's first shoe made of gum, is made of leather except for the sole. In addition, the sole of the shoe can be replaced for a certain fee if needed. The old shoe sole, which becomes unusable, is recycled again.

The sale price of the shoe, which is planned to be put on sale in June this year, is set at 190 Euros. Gumshoe has three different color options: bubblegum pink, black and red.

Gumdrop's products made from recycled gum are not limited to shoes. Since gum is made from rubber, the raw material for many things, Gum-tec offers unlimited potential. Among the company's products are keychain-shaped gum collection boxes placed on the streets to prevent gum from being thrown on the ground, and products such as combs, boots, door mats, pens, forks, storage containers, and Frisbees made from recycled gum.

Gumshoe is a successful example of turning harmful into useful by utilizing developing technology and showing that there are no limits to creativity in recycling. The project partners aim to expand this project to other big cities and thus raise awareness about the need to dispose of waste in the right place, as well as raise recycling awareness.

What are the Types of Environmental Pollution?

What is Environmental Pollution?

Environmental pollution has a significant impact on all living and non-living beings. Pollution of the natural environment is a common problem for the whole world.

Environmental pollution is caused by the unnatural disruption of the structure and naturalness of the ecosystem by our own hands. This is the result of various harmful substances entering the ecosystem.

And this negatively affects all living and non-living things and often causes permanent damage.

Causes of environmental pollution:

1. Unplanned urbanization

2. Rapid population growth accelerates existing pollution along with the needs it brings.

3. Irresponsible use of natural resources

4. Industrialization

5. Consumption habits

6. Water pollution

7. Food shortage

8. Destruction of forests, erosion, pollution of land and sea wastes, chemicals, etc., and vegetation degradation.

9. Extinction of living things can be given as examples.

What are the Types of Environmental Pollution?

The types of environmental pollution are divided into 5: air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, and visual and light pollution.

Air pollution:

The oxygen that allows us to survive in the atmosphere is being polluted day by day with the effect on us humans. By using many harmful substances that cause air pollution, the quality of the oxygen we breathe is decreasing. The causes of air pollution are divided into four:

  • Factory chimneys
  • Thermal power plants
  • Vehicle exhaust fumes
  • Perfume / Deodorant

Since these factors are artificial and harmful, they are among the leading causes of air pollution. With the increase in air pollution, people have to struggle with different health problems. Air pollution has a great effect on diseases such as shortness of breath and bronchitis. Air pollution also has a great impact on climate. It causes the ozone layer to be pierced and creates global warming.

Air Quality Management

In air quality management, particulate impacts are calculated for all structures and installation sites where there will be continuous movement in the operation. These include dust deposition, health impacts associated with PM10 and PM2.5, etc., and the mineralogy and chemical composition of particles. Therefore, a system needs to be developed that is specific to the area where each operation is located.

Air quality dispersion models are based on the calculation of the distribution of pollutants generated as a result of mining activities to the receptor points in the impact area under different atmospheric conditions with certain mathematical and engineering techniques. It is used to take necessary measures by predicting the possible pollution caused by all units and structures in mines.

Water pollution:

The most important reason for water pollution is people's lack of awareness. Factory wastes dumped into the sea, chemical pesticides, thermal power plants, and man-made pollution mix into the water and pollute it. Plastic materials and other garbage is thrown into the sea harm not only us but also the animals living in our seas and even cause their death. The habitat of another living creature should not be interfered with in this way.

Soil contamination:

Soil pollution can be considered the most important of these pollution types. Because many of the foods we consume grow in the soil and pass directly to us from food. Especially acidic waters, factory wastes, and plastic wastes that pass into the soil cause the balance between nature and us to deteriorate. Water pollution also affects soil pollution. Therefore, garbage should be separated and polluted water should be prevented from entering the soil. Waste facilities should be established and the environment and nature should be cleaned of unnecessary waste.

Noise pollution:

Noise is a tone of sound that is above the normal sound level and disturbs us when we hear it. We are now exposed to noise pollution in almost every area and this has many bad effects. Vehicle sounds and factory sounds are among the main causes of noise pollution. Sometimes even a small and continuous sound can be enough to disturb us.

Loud noises from televisions and musical instruments, untimely maintenance and repairs, and noise from some workplaces negatively affect people's hearing health, disrupt their psychological balance, and reduce their work efficiency.

Visual and light pollution:

Everywhere wants to attract attention by using more light. As a result, light pollution occurs. This situation causes many people to have eye and headaches. In addition, the natural color of the sky changes as a result of light pollution and this is the biggest damage to the environment. The biggest cause of visual pollution is unplanned urbanization. Disproportionately constructed buildings and the continuous construction of new buildings create an unpleasant image.

What can be done?

  • Work can be done on creating ecological awareness and increasing sensitivity.
  •  Projects can be developed and workshops can be organized.
  • We should never throw our garbage into nature; we should recycle waste such as paper, glass, and plastic.
  • We should use filters because the gases coming out of home and factory chimneys cause air pollution.
  • We should prevent forest destruction by increasing green areas. We should work to regenerate forests after natural disasters such as forest fires and landslides.
  • We should avoid any product that is harmful to the ozone layer. We should avoid products containing chlorofluorocarbon gases such as deodorant and perfume.
  • To reduce the impact caused by automobile exhausts, we should take care to use public transportation or use environmentally friendly vehicles such as bicycles and scooters.
  • Animal hunting should be controlled, overhunting should be banned and species diversity should be protected.
  • Renewable sources such as solar energy and wind energy should be used for energy.
  • We should reduce the use of plastics such as nylon bags.
  • We should collect medical waste in a separate place and dispose of it in a way that it does not mix with water and soil.

Climate Crisis Impact on Endangered Animals

The Climate Crisis undoubtedly has dozens of bad effects on the world. In this article, you will read about its impact on endangered animals. The impact of the climate crisis on the extinction of animals is huge because the climate crisis is destroying their natural habitats. The most important one was last year's forest fires, which particularly affected countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Another impact of the climate crisis is that some animal species are unable to adapt to the changing temperatures in their natural habitats due to global warming and have difficulty surviving, so they migrate or become extinct. The best example is polar bears, which face major habitat problems due to melting glaciers. Another problem that animals face due to the climate crisis is that many animals cannot find enough prey because of the increasing number of extinct animals, and therefore have difficulty surviving.


  • The Impact of Climate Change on Living Things
  • Endangered Animals and Detection
  • Endangered Animals and What to Do About It

We can list them under the heading of the impact of the climate crisis on animal extinction.


Corals are easily stressed by changing conditions such as temperature fluctuations and exposure to sunlight. When a coral is stressed in adverse conditions, such as extreme heat, it expels algae living inside its tissue, causing the coral to bleach, which leaves it white in color and vulnerable to disease.
Between 2014 and 2017, about 75 percent of the world's tropical coral reefs experienced heat stress severe enough to cause bleaching, and for 30 percent of the reefs, this stress was enough to kill the corals.

How to help? Using less energy to save coral reefs and money.

The main way to help protect coral reefs is to tackle climate change head-on. Most power plants burn coal and other fossil fuels to generate electricity, and this releases harmful emissions, including greenhouse gases. You can help reduce the number of emissions from power plants by saving energy both at home and at work.

Monarch Butterfly

Monarch butterflies are extremely sensitive to weather and climate because they depend on environmental cues, especially temperature, to trigger their reproduction, migration, and hibernation. Increases in intense weather events, such as droughts and severe storms, and extreme temperature variations are greatly threatening this climate-sensitive species, contributing to the loss of hundreds of millions of butterflies.

How to help? Creating a sustainable garden for wildlife at home

The main way to help monarch butterflies is to restore their natural habitat. Planting a pesticide-free monarch butterfly habitat garden filled with native milkweed and nectar plants will provide a habitat for monarch butterflies as well as numerous other pollinators, including hummingbirds and bumblebees. Planting native species in your garden is the best option to help monarch butterflies because monarch butterflies have co-evolved with native plants and their life cycles are synchronized with each other.

Sea Turtle

Rising sea levels and increasing temperatures caused by climate change could greatly affect sea turtles, especially their reproduction and genetic diversity.

How to help? Vegetation can be planted along the coast.

Planting vegetation along the beach, especially native plant species, provides a better nesting environment for sea turtles. Vegetation traps and stabilizes the sand, protecting nests from erosion, temperature changes, and artificial light pollution that can disorient hatchlings on their way to the ocean. Some sea turtles, such as the endangered hawksbill sea turtle, also prefer to nest in vegetation; other species use vegetation as a marker to identify where they are on the beach.

Climate Justice: How Equal is the Global Crisis?

 "Climate Justice: How equal is the global crisis?" Let's take a look at the issue we need to discuss as a component of global climate change. 

Climate justice aims to protect human and living rights and justice in the impacts and consequences of the climate crisis. If you think about why this concept is needed, we need to focus on climate impacts and geographies. Some communities living in different geographies will be more affected by the crisis simply because of their location. This is often directly related to poverty, inequality, and injustice. In addition, the countries that will be most affected by the climate crisis often have smaller economies, and their climate policies may often be less developed than climate policies worldwide, and therefore take fewer measures to address the climate crisis.

Climate justice also focuses on the causes of the factors causing climate change. These factors include, in particular, carbon emissions, which are one of the biggest causes of global warming. Carbon emissions occur mostly in sectors such as energy production, agriculture, industry, and transportation, many of which are geared towards using more resources and producing more, especially in developed countries.

While China, India, Russia, and Brazil are the top five emitters, with the US having the largest share of carbon emissions globally, whose economy is highly dependent on carbon emissions in sectors such as energy production, agriculture, industry, and transportation, island countries in Oceania, such as Tuvalu, Kiribati, and the Marshall Islands, which will be primarily and intensely affected by the climate crisis, and whose communities' habitats will be seriously threatened by sea level rise, have a very low share in the climate crisis.

Therefore, climate justice aims for a fair distribution of resources, which should be shared equally around the world, and a fair burden of responsibilities, which should be shared equally around the world. 

Do you think sustainability awareness will lead us to climate justice?

How the Climate Crisis Threatens the Economy?

Our Earth has existed for about 5 billion years and has been home to humans and other living creatures for thousands of years with its resources. However, these resources are limited and unfortunately, we humans spend the resources that our world offers us irresponsibly and destroy our own living space with our own hands. One of the negative consequences of this behavior is climate change. Its impact is increasing day by day. As these effects increase, climate change becomes a reality that cannot be ignored and is a matter of global concern.

The atmosphere surrounding our planet works like a greenhouse. The atmosphere retains the heat inside thanks to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, ozone gas, and methane. This greenhouse effect we are talking about is formed by gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, etc. in our atmosphere. This is called the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect regulates the temperature of the earth and creates the temperature required for the continuation of life. According to scientific research, if there was no greenhouse effect, the average temperature of our world would be at a level that would not allow living life. This temperature is approximate -18°C.

The climate crisis, which we call global warming and which is getting stronger day by day, is caused by the increase in the proportion of gases that make up the greenhouse effect in our atmosphere. Especially the increasing amount of carbon dioxide is a major factor. The uncontrolled increase in the temperature of our planet damages the resources of our world and the life on it, just like the destruction of crops in a greenhouse with an uncontrolled increase in temperature.

This is a consequence of the high levels of carbon dioxide emissions that began with the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century. In parallel with rapidly increasing industrialization, fossil fuel use and social welfare also increased. At the same time, the human population began to rise uncontrollably. As a result, natural resources have been consumed rapidly and irresponsibly. According to research, carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere reached an increase of 43% in 2020. Along with fossil fuels, another important cause is deforestation. 

While dozens of forest fires we experienced last summer in the world are still vivid in our memory, a new forest resource is disappearing every day. We need to start working to regenerate our lost forests as soon as possible. Forests are the most important tool humanity has against the climate crisis. The decline of forests around the world causes the climate crisis to intensify and the concentration of gases in our atmosphere to change.

What consumption items cause climate change?

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 60% of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions are caused by fossil fuels and 22% by deforestation.

Among fossil fuels, the most widely used fuel type is coal, which also has an important place in our country. Worldwide, 27% of the energy needed is provided by coal. Likewise, coal is also responsible for 43% of the CO2 gas emitted into the atmosphere. Especially with the energy crisis and increasing energy costs in recent years, coal consumption has started to increase again.

What kind of developments is taking place in the world in this regard?

The most effective international action to combat climate change is the Paris Climate Agreement. This is an international agreement in which 197 countries have acted jointly. The main objective of this agreement, which is the clearest tool in the fight against the climate crisis, is to limit the average global temperature increase to 2°C. The agreement also commits to strive to limit this increase to 1.5°C.

The global commitment of countries is not enough. If all countries keep their individual targets at the same rates, the global temperature increase will reach 4°C according to research. In order to prevent the climate crisis, we need to keep this temperature increase at a maximum of 2°C.

Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Each country must accept its share and blame in this crisis. According to studies, China, the US, the EU and India are responsible for 50% of global CO2 emissions. Our country is one of the 20 countries with the highest emissions in the world. Especially China, which has joined the global industrialization race in recent years, is not interested in reducing emissions. Concern for economic growth overrides environmental measures.

What is the scale of the economic destruction caused by the inevitable climate crisis?

According to a study conducted by Oxfam, a UK-based international aid organization, if greenhouse gases are not reduced sufficiently and the climate crisis is not prevented, the global economic contraction will be twice the economic depression caused by the Covid-19 crisis. Research has shown that environmental disasters caused by the global increase in temperature have severely damaged the global economy. With the rise in temperature, global growth is expected to decline from 3.6% to 2.5%. The main reason for this economic downsizing is the expected global water scarcity, decline in agricultural products, emerging bacteria and new types of diseases.

A crisis in water, which is the basis of life, will have serious consequences for both human life and the economy. The fact that only 2% of the world's water resources are potable makes the effects of global warming more dangerous. An increase in global temperature will create significant water stress and drought worldwide. This issue is a vital problem for our country where potable water is limited. According to researches, our country is one of the countries that will experience the most water problems worldwide in the coming years.

In addition, agricultural production is expected to decrease significantly with the increase in temperature. Agricultural production is expected to come to a standstill, especially in regions such as the southern region of Africa, where the heat increase has a strong impact. The increase in temperature affects the national economy of the countries in those regions in the first place, and then the global economy on a macro scale. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) report, if the global temperature increase is 1.5°C by 2100, the expected average crop decline will be 5% globally; if the global temperature increase is 2°C, the expected average crop decline will be 11% globally. This would cause significant economic losses. The impact on the fisheries sector, another important source of food and economic income, is another important consequence of the climate crisis. Increasing global temperature increases the temperature level of the oceans and reduces fish yields. These problems could affect nearly 1 billion people in agriculture and fisheries worldwide.

In addition to the effects on agriculture and fisheries, another important sector affected by the global temperature increase is the tourism sector. Especially the regions with island economies are threatened by the rising amount of water. In addition, the decreasing amount of precipitation with global warming is a situation that negatively affects winter tourism. In addition, increasing epidemics affect global mobility and stop tourism activities.

In addition, global heat increase causes significant climate changes. This causes extreme temperature increases in some regions. This situation creates unsuitable conditions for human life in some cities. According to studies, if the rate of temperature increase continues at this rate, by 2050, about 80% of the Maldives will become uninhabitable. The best examples of this are the cities of Jacobabad in Pakistan's Sindh province and Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates, where unfavorable conditions for human life were created in the summer of 2021. The increasing temperature in these cities has reached a level that threatens human life. Temperatures exceeding 50 degrees Celsius during the year in these cities have reached dimensions that threaten human life. Analyses show that if this situation continues, approximately 2 million people will migrate from these cities. In other words, the increasing temperature makes some regions unsuitable for human life. This situation will cause mass migration and create serious economic losses. The migration waves that will be experienced will cause intense stress in countries and big cities where migration is experienced, a significantly increasing employment problem, and significant negative consequences in the field of security and public order. These migration waves, with their possible consequences, will create serious economic burdens for the countries experiencing migration waves. Migration is a long-term problem that has both social and economic consequences today and in the future. Necessary measures should already be planned for the migration waves to be experienced due to the climate crisis and necessary solutions should be considered against possible scenarios.

What are the possible solutions?

The protection of our country and the world from the inevitable impact of the expected global temperature increase depends on structural changes and radical decisions. Measures to be taken in this context;

  • Tend towards renewable energy (solar, wind, etc.)
  • Fossil fuel consumption should be reduced, (coal, oil, natural gas, etc.)
  • Increase the amount of forest,
  • Measures should be developed to use energy efficiently,
  • General measures should be taken to reduce carbon emissions.

These measures against the climate crisis will have a positive impact on national income for countries. The European economy meets its energy needs from external sources. In other words, it is dependent on foreign sources for energy. Renewable energy sources will be an important solution for countries that provide all of their basic energy needs such as oil, coal and natural gas from abroad. Converting unlimited and continuous resources such as the sun and wind into energy is an alternative that will contribute positively to the national economy and reduce our dependence on foreign energy.

The carbon neutrality targets of China in 2060, the USA in 2050 and the European Union in 2030, and the zero emission targets of Japan, South Korea, South Africa and Canada are not realistic targets in today's global economy race, but they are targets that must be realized for our world. The global climate crisis will cause significant damage to both human life and the global economy.

The figures clearly show the impact of the climate crisis on the global economy. If the global temperature increase continues at this rate, the expected economic shrinkage worldwide will be at least double the 4.2% shrinkage caused by the Covid19 pandemic. This global shrinkage is expected to reach 18%. Our country is expected to be affected by this global shrinkage by at least 10%.

The climate crisis is an issue that urgently needs to be addressed for our survival and economic sustainability.

3 E's of Sustainability

Increasing environmental risks as a result of population growth and industrialization increase the importance of the concept of sustainability. Preventing the damage caused by human activities to nature and securing the future of the world constitute the basis of sustainability.

When addressing sustainability, the impact of the activities implemented in the development process on future generations should be emphasized. For example, the prioritization of economic benefits over environmental and social values can lead to irreversible global problems. Examples of these problems include climate change and environmental pollution.

The 3 dimensions of sustainability consist of economic, environmental, and equity components. Considering these 3 fundamental elements equally provides a holistic approach. This paves the way for looking to the future with confidence.

We have examined these 3 dimensions and their characteristics for you. First, let us get to know sustainable development more closely:

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development means development without limiting the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

Technological developments have led to an increase in production and consumption levels. In the same direction, the environmental impact of human activities is also increasing. All these developments take place within social structures. Many issues such as income distribution, discrimination, and equal opportunities reveal the importance of the social aspect of economic development.

The fact that sustainability intersects with economic, social, and environmental areas makes one-dimensional examinations invalid. There are international initiatives that try to secure the present and the future at the same time.

First, in 1987, the World Commission on Economic Development (WCED) emphasized the 3 dimensions of the concept of sustainable development with the Brundtland report "Our Common Future".

Today, the United Nations has emphasized that all 3 dimensions of sustainability are equally important, with the Sustainable Development Goals targeted to be achieved by 2030.

Let's take a brief look at the international development of sustainability:

The Brundtland Report and Sustainability

The Brundtland report has an important place in the field of sustainability thanks to its comprehensive content.

What is needed to achieve sustainable development according to the Brundtland report published in 1987:

  • A political system that ensures effective citizen participation in decision-making.
  • An economic system that can provide surplus production and know-how in a self-sustaining and sustainable manner.
  • A social system capable of resolving the tensions arising from incompatible development.
  • A production system that respects the preservation of the environmental base necessary for development.
  • A technological system capable of constantly seeking new solutions.
  • An international system that supports sustainable patterns of trade and finance.
  • A governance system that is flexible and capable of self-correction.
  • United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 

With the "2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" published in 2015, the United Nations demonstrated its commitment to the 3 key components of sustainable development. The 17 goals developed within this scope constitute a roadmap for a sustainable future. This development shows that the common perspective on economic, social, and environmental aspects continues in the international arena.

The interdependence of these 3 pillars shows the multifaceted nature of sustainability. It should not be forgotten that improvement or deterioration in a single dimension directly affects other dimensions. This feature of sustainability has been reaffirmed by the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.

 the 3 E's of Sustainability

The 3 dimensions of sustainability have an intertwined structure. Although they are defined separately, it is necessary to consider these dimensions as complementary elements. Therefore, in order to talk about the existence of sustainable development, there must be improvement and development in each dimension. The fact that they are closely interrelated makes these dimensions equally important.

Let's take a closer look at the economy, equity, and ecology dimensions that underpin sustainability.

1- Economic Dimension of Sustainability

The economic dimension of sustainability is closely related to issues such as economic growth, productivity, production processes, and investment.

In the economic dimension, how resources are used while increasing efficiency in the production of goods and services occupies an important place. The possibility of resource depletion raises potential risks related to the continuity of production. This is where the environmental dimension and renewable energy sources come into play.

Wastes generated as a result of production and consumption can also be evaluated under the economic component of sustainability. Wastes caused by economic activities may cause irreversible damage to the environment. In this context, all environmental risks that jeopardize the continuity of economic development are related to sustainability.

 Climate-oriented risks and the sectoral changes caused by them can also be evaluated under this dimension. Companies that want to carry their brands into the future manage their environmental impacts through sustainability policies. The reason for this is to reach customers with high environmental awareness and to comply with official regulations.

 2- Social/Equity Dimension of Sustainability

The social dimension of sustainability is related to the continuity of social values, relationships, and institutions for the future.

Ensuring social cohesion and the existence of common goals for the future indicate that social sustainability has been achieved.

Equality of opportunity, improvement in quality of life, ensuring rights and freedoms, and basic individual needs fall within the scope of the social component of sustainability.

In the social dimension, the 5 basic principles on which a sustainable society is based are as follows:

Equality: Ensuring equal opportunities for all members of society, especially for the most vulnerable and materially disadvantaged

Diversity: Promoting social diversity.

Engagement: Creating systems and structures at formal, informal, and institutional levels to ensure social cohesion within or outside the community

Quality of Life: Meeting basic needs and ensuring a good quality of life for all individuals

Democracy and Governance: Establish transparent and accountable governance structures in addition to democratic processes

3- Environmental Dimension of Sustainability

The environmental dimension of sustainability is related to the use of natural resources without harming ecosystems. The protection of the environment and the continuation of natural life fall within the scope of the environmental component of sustainability.

Environmental pollution resulting from production and consumption may jeopardize the needs of future generations if not prevented. The continuity of development is possible by ensuring sustainability in the environmental dimension.

In other words, the continuation of economic activities requires the protection of the earth. Improving the quality of life in social terms is also closely related to developments in the environmental dimension.

In order to ensure sustainable development in the environmental sense, biodiversity should be protected and irregular use of natural resources should be prevented. Thus, sustainability will be ensured both today and in the future.

It is important to remember that no economic activity and social structure can be evaluated independently of environmental factors.

Overview of the Kuznets Curve..

An overview of the Kuznets curve: The inverse relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth

The Kuznets curve, first proposed by US economist Simon Kuznets in 1955, is a well-known curve used to investigate the impact of economic growth on human welfare. According to this curve, human welfare increases in the early stages of economic growth, but then the rate of economic growth decreases, and human welfare declines.

In 1995, Grossman and Krueger began to analyze the relationship between environmental indicators and income distributions. And the 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' emerged. According to this hypothesis, there is an inverse relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution. In the early stages of industrial production, as financial income increases, environmental pollution also increases, but corruption is ignored at this stage. After the optimum growth point is reached, environmental factors start to be considered, and pollution decreases. The high environmental awareness of institutions and individuals with high-income levels shows a factor in this decrease.

If you ask what are the dangers of the curve, some proponents of the curve say that there is not yet a peak where carbon emissions will start to fall. And they think that maybe what we need is a bit more economic growth to reach the necessary per capita income threshold. It isn't clear how safe it is to read the theory in this light, as we have already crossed safe limits and started to destabilize the climate. Given that there are tipping points that will lead to climate change, increasing emissions in the name of economic growth is a luxury we don't have.

This curve actually shows how developed countries reached milestone incomes as a result of intensive production with the industrial revolution and the reduction in pollution as environmental factors that were not taken into account at that time started to be taken into account over time.

Also, the other problem is that the curve is limited to the production of countries. For example, the British economy moved away from heavy industry. But it has not stopped using heavy industrial goods. It still wants to drive gasoline-powered cars and build things out of cement. Countries that have closed their own mines still use a lot of tin, copper, and iron ore from elsewhere. From this point of view, environmental impacts have not disappeared. They have just shifted.

In every post, I want to underline the need for environmental sanctions that will evaluate the whole world holistically. We can tackle the global climate crisis not by relocating pollution, but through a global and "real" fight.

Climate Change Loss and Damage Fund System

What is the Loss and Damage Fund System?

This issue, which has been on the agenda for years but has never been included in the climate agenda at climate summits or other meetings, is among the most fundamental issues for those who talk about climate justice. The loss and damage fund system has basically emerged from the fact that developing and undeveloped countries think that the countries that are at the top of carbon emissions are also to blame for the extraordinary events that occur due to climate change. Therefore, since countries with excessive carbon emissions are responsible for climate change, they should help countries that suffer losses and damages due to the effects of climate change.

In 2022, the "establishment of a fund for losses and damages" was welcomed by the parties, although it entered the COP27 agenda in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt at the last minute. The floods that devastated Pakistan that year were the trigger, as was Typhoon Haiyan in 2013, which led to the first effective action on loss and damage.

This issue has been consistently ignored by developed countries, particularly the US, responsible for 25 percent of all carbon emissions into the atmosphere to date, and the EU, responsible for 22 percent, lest it brings historical responsibility to light. However, the slogans of "climate justice" and "Leave no one behind (LNOB)", which are constantly on the world agenda, have shown their effect, and an important step has been taken to compensate for losses and damages in line with the main principle of "Polluter pays principle".

Climate Change Loss and Damage Fund System?

In particular, UN Secretary-General Guterres and EU representatives called for the same willingness to compensate for losses and damages for +1.5℃. EU officials also shared that they are in favor of the idea of establishing a fund for losses and damages, but that it would not be sufficient for this fund to be supported only by developed countries, and that countries that are among the "developing" countries according to the framework convention developed 30 years ago but are currently emitting significant greenhouse gases, should also contribute to the fund. (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC)

In fact, it is envisaged that the objections of developing countries, which have been insisted on for many years, that the development of nations is open to change due to its dynamic structure, and therefore that the annexes of the convention 30 years ago do not reflect today's world, may be voiced by different countries in the future and this situation may benefit all countries.

At this meeting, it was decided to establish a transition committee to carry out technical work on details such as the establishment of the loss and damage fund system, which country will contribute to what extent, how countries can benefit from the fund, who will carry out monitoring and audits, and the evaluation of alternative funding sources.

After more than two weeks of protracted negotiations at COP27, an overarching declaration on the establishment of a fund for losses and damages and the gradual phase-out of coal use at +1.5℃, adhering to the Glasgow language, was presented to the world press as the Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan.

A new financing mechanism, the so-called Loss and Damage Fund, was included in the decision texts of COP27, although it is not yet fully named. Developing countries, African countries, small island states, etc. see this as a great victory.

How Should We Explain Climate Change to Children?

 When discussing climate change with children, we have compiled a list of points to consider. 

Dear Educators;

Recently, children of all ages are frequently exposed to news and information about the climate crisis. As a result, children may experience climate anxiety. Even if you try to protect them from this anxiety or help them cope with this process more healthily, they will inevitably encounter various information in different ways. However, as adults, we need to be more prepared and conscious about this issue, approach children's questions with awareness, set an example for them with our own behavior, and enable them to approach this process critically. At the same time, we should motivate them to protect nature, listen to their concerns, talk to them about what they can do to reduce them, and ensure they do not lose hope.

Each child's developmental process and temperament are unique. Whatever the issue, making the right decisions and choosing the most effective methods depends on knowing the child well. Trusting parents and teachers in this regard, the following helpful notes on climate change will make it easier for you.

What should we pay attention to in general terms?

Before explaining the causes and consequences of climate change and answering children's questions, teach them about nature, how ecosystems work and how everything in nature is interconnected, interdependent, and interdependent. Let children recognize and wonder about the natural processes that make life possible.

Do not leave children alone with feelings of worry, anxiety, and hopelessness when talking to them about climate change or when they are exposed to random information or images. With the support of their teachers or parents, have a conversation with children about why they feel this way. Carefully choose the visuals you will use to draw children's attention. You can shape children's relationship with nature through these images. Keep in mind that at a very early age, pictures that create phobia and despair after the news of major crises that concern the world and disasters caused by the climate crisis can desensitize children after a while and create anxiety in them. This situation may later turn them into adults who are distant from nature and ignore nature-related issues. Pay attention to the extremity of the information and images that children are exposed to.

Get to know children well. Scared, reactive, docile, introverted, calm... Choose your information and discourse according to their personality traits. For example, it would not be useful to talk about negative scenarios with an introverted child who may experience anxiety. Be aware of the developmental stage children are in and take into account their emotional and social developmental characteristics. When children have to deal with difficult emotions, act in line with the characteristics of their age stage.

For 0-8 Years 
What should we do?

The primary goal should be to get children to spend time in nature, play, wonder, observe and appreciate nature. Explain concepts to them in an easier way and create opportunities for children to observe and enjoy living things. Plant seeds together, water flowers, feed street animals and prepare healthy food for birds. Observing the weather, seasons and climate can be a good foundation for children's understanding of the climate crisis and can raise their awareness. Ask them "What happens in nature in different seasons? How do the trees change? What are birds, insects, butterflies, and bees doing?".

Children may know new information about climate change from the media, school, or friends, or they and their families may have been directly exposed to one of the consequences of the climate crisis, or the place where they live may have been damaged. Approach children according to their situation and talk about what they sense. Tell children that it is common to feel scared, anxious, and tragic after such events. Examine what experts have to say in extreme cases, get support from them and choose the language that is appropriate for the child's age. Children can express their feelings and thoughts in different ways in the face of negative events. At this point, remind them that they can draw pictures, play games or create stories if they wish. Give children responsibilities and tasks in their daily lives. 

Such as turning off lights when not needed, not consuming water, watering flowers, and recycling... Such attitudes will improve children's attitudes toward climate protection and help reduce their anxiety about the climate crisis.

What should we not do?

Avoid fear, phobia, and worrying scenarios and images. Do not confront them with questions such as "Will there be a flood?", "What will we do if there is a flood?", "Will the forests be depleted?", "Will something happen to our house?". Give them a sense of security. Do not project your fears and negative thoughts about climate change onto children. On the contrary, tell them what people are doing to take care of nature, and make them listen and see what you are doing. In early childhood, children want to feel safe. Never forget this.

For ages 9 and up
Find the right resources.

Children can understand the causes and consequences of the climate crisis and the role, impact, and importance of human behavior in this process. To do this, take care to choose easy information, the right visuals, and constructive language. Try to explain scientific information in an age-appropriate way that children can comprehend and connect them with the right sources. Encourage them to be curious and ask questions. Support them in distinguishing information pollution and following the right sources. Be sensitive in the images you share with children. Do not use images of burnt animals, forests, overturned houses, etc. to explain to them the consequences of the climate crisis, forest fires, or floods. Explain the issue step by step in a cause-and-effect relationship with scientific information.

Work together.

Remember that they are exposed to a lot of information outside of you. So ask what children already know, think or feel, but do not pressure them to talk. Especially do not leave children who have been exposed to a natural disaster caused by climate change or who have experienced/witnessed a disaster alone with the question "When will this happen again?", "What will I do if this happens?", "What if it happens to me?". In such cases, be sure to share the solutions, the precautions to be taken and the actions to be taken, and talk to the children about what can be done to find solutions and get their opinions. Raise children's hopes. Meet with the children's teachers/parents and discuss with them. Create a common language with teachers/parents to explain to children with scientific information and focus on solutions, and to teach them how to be critical about what they hear from the media and how to access the right sources.

Start from the basics and go deeper.

Teach the climate with an ecosystem focus. Explain that everything is interconnected, what an ecosystem is, and the relationship between the living and non-living things in an ecosystem. Make children empathize with living things. Think together about the questions "What would bees, birds, bears, trees, and people do if the seasons change more rapidly and differently than assumed?" Parents who are not experts or educators can easily discuss the causes and consequences of the climate crisis using a scientific resource and try to find answers together. 

  • "What is this thing we call the atmosphere?",
  • "What does it do?",
  • "What happens when there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?",
  • "Why is there more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than there should be?",
  • "What is a fossil fuel?",
  • "How can fossil fuel use be reduced?",
  • "What does the climate crisis mean?",
  • "What is a carbon footprint? How can it be measured?
  • What can we do to reduce our carbon footprint?" 

You can examine, discuss and know the answers to these questions together. Deepen your discussions. You can discuss everything from sustainable growth, what can be done in our homes and schools to ensure sustainable growth, to volcanic eruptions, and if you don't know, you can find ways to know together. But remember, children, do not have to learn everything about the climate crisis just like adults.

Focus on solutions rather than problems.

Introduce children to important role models, issues, and projects working in the field of nature conservation. Motivate them. Tell them and show them that together they can make a difference. Share with the children relevant climate initiatives, news, and studies you come across. Tell children that there is work to be done by individual people as well as by governments, local authorities, and civil society, and give examples of what is being done and can be done.

Be a model.

  • Be part of positive change.
  • Together with the children, focus on what you can do in your household and in your daily life to reduce fossil fuel use.
  • Be attentive to your own behavior and do not act inconsistently.
  • Use cloth bags, earthenware, and pottery.
  • Save energy.
  • Reduce your waste.
  • Eliminate plastic and disposable items from your daily life.

Give responsibility.

Support children to develop and implement projects with their peers or friends. Explain how important it is for everyone to make small individual efforts in their daily lives to care for nature and live a carbon-free life, and support children to adopt new habits by making joint decisions.